Saturday, October 12, 2019
Psychodynamic Theory :: Psychology, Freud
The theory our learning team is studying is the psychodynamic approach or what is sometimes called psychoanalytic approach. The main contributors to Psychodynamic approaches was the founder Sigmund Freud (1859-1939), Anna Freud (1895-1982) gave significant contribution to the psychodynamics of adolescence and Erik Erickson (1902-1994) called the Ã¢â¬Å"newÃ¢â¬ Freud but with an emphasis on ego (conscious) forces, termed as psychosocial theory (Craig & Dunn, p 11-13). Psychodynamics is the explanation or interpretation (as of behavior or mental states) in terms of mental or emotional forces or processes (www.merriam-webster.com) Through case study, the psychodynamic approach was developed by Sigmund Freud. Freud visited CharcotÃ¢â¬â¢s, a laboratory in Paris investigating people suffering from hysteria. There, Freud began patient case studies (Crain, p. 254). Freud developed 5 stages of human development known as the Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency and Genital stages. The Oral stage is from the ages of birth to 18 months. This stage engages in oral activities such as sucking. Next the Anal stage begins around age 18 months to 3 years of age. Freud suggests that during the Anal stage a child focuses on the pleasure of purging from the rectal area. The Phallic stages, none as the masturbation stage, when a child getÃ¢â¬â¢s pleasure from focusing on his genital areas usually happens during ages 3 years to 6 years of age. After the Phallic stage come the Latency stages. Latency is when children at the ages of 6 to 12 years old work to develop cognitive and interpersonal skills suppressing sexual interests but th ose 12 years and older fall into the Genital stages. During the Genital stage those suppressed sexual interests re-occur and the need to find gratification dependent on finding a partner (Craig & Dunn, p 12) In addition to FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s stages of development his best-known concepts are those of the id, ego, and superego (Crain, p. 268). The id personality called Ã¢â¬Ëthe unconsciousÃ¢â¬ is the personality that focuses on maximizing pleasure and minimizing pain through reflexes and drives such as hunger or bladder tensions (Crain, pp. 268-269). The id concept is impulsive, chaotic and unrealistic. Although the id stage stands for Ã¢â¬Å"the untamed passionsÃ¢â¬ it is balanced out by Ã¢â¬Å"reason and good senseÃ¢â¬ called the ego (Crain, p. 270). The ego evaluates situations comparing them to what has happened in the past and make realistic changes planning for the future. This is what is called Ã¢â¬Å"secondary process thinkingÃ¢â¬ . Ego considers the possibilities of the act in question giving the opportunity to make safe and sound choices.