Thursday, March 7, 2019

Criminology Theory †Rational Choice Theory Essay

Rational choice conjecture was inspired in the 1700s by a man put forward Cesare Beccaria, whose utilitarian views and ideas were accepted throughout Europe and the United States. This theory is in any case know as able action theory content the fabric for comprehending and often formally modeling social and economic behavior. It is the sovereign theoretical paradigm in microeconomics. It is also the central to modern policy-making science and is used by scholars in other disciplines much(prenominal) as sociology and philosophy. Rational Choice Theory is used by social scientists to understand human behavior. This theory is the belief that man is a reasoning worker who weighs meat and ends, costs and benefits, and makes a apt choice. Beccarias helped to eliminate uncouth and unusual punishment in the nineteenth century, which at the time was in truth common, and formed the basis for the classical theory of umbrage, a school of eyeshot that influenced the French Revolu tion and the establishment of the Eighth Amendment in the United States Constitution.Beccaria believed that mountain contain to engage in all behavior, criminal and non-criminal, and without the fear and induction of severe punishment for criminal offenses. People will continue to choose to pass on those crimes. Beccaria believed that all individuals possess ingenuous will. People use free will to make rational decisions, such as whether or not the personal benefits are worth the risk of violating the law by committing a crime. It is by free will that people are able to prolong through with those rational decisions. To Beccaria, punishment should address prevention rather than revenge. He believed that the merely way to deter criminals from continuing to commit more grievous offenses is to ensure that the punishment is well suited for the crime. He believed the punishment should only be severe enough to outweigh the personal benefits gained from committing the crime. A Briti sh philosopher named Jeremy Bentham elaborated on Beccarias views and proposed the idea that people choose their actions by whether or not they produce happiness and avoidedunpleasant conditions.With this theory laws were created to persist the community happy and punishment is only justified if it is used as a method of prevention. The popularity of the classical theory peaked in the 1800s merely began to decline and was eventually neglected altogether by the majority of criminologists by the end of the twentieth century. During the mid-1970s, as positivist approaches towards the rehabilitation of known criminals began to come out ineffective, the popularity of the classical approach improved. Criminologists began to portray criminals to the public as rational planners who merit to be punished. This modernized view of the classical school of criminology is now known as the rational choice theory and is used to explain wherefore criminals commit crimes. According to the rationa l choice theory, criminals are people who cover the same goals and ambitions as ordinary citizens, but choose to obtain those goals by illegitimate means.The rational choice theory is based on the self-confidence that before choosing to commit a crime, the criminal considers personal factors or demand for the crime, such as their immediate need for benefits, revenge, or excitement, and also situational factors, such as the severity of the consequences and the risk of apprehension. The rationality described by rational choice theory is different from the colloquial and philosophical uses of rationality. Rationality means in colloquial language sane or in a thoughtful clear headed manner. Routine activity theory is a sub-field of rational choice criminology, which was developed by Marcus Felson. Routine activity theory says that crime is normal and depends on the opportunities available. For example after Hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans, meaning poverty, inequality and unemployme nt became a problem this gave people a reason to commit crimes.

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