Monday, February 18, 2019
Gender-Based Problems of Women in Management Essay -- Psychology, Fem
Gender-Based Problems of Women in Management Early Research The focus of a grave deal of the early research on gender-based problems at work has attempt to determine cistrons responsible for the problems. As noted by Talley (1988), women in management, particularly the upper levels of management, were shown by this early research to have consistently been underrepresented and underutilized. An exercise of the kind of research that was being conducted at this time can be seen in research conducted by Gerike (1983) who compared a group of 34 women in upper- and middle-level management localizations, most of them the sole woman at their level, with a group of 34 men matched to them only by job position or job title. Data were collected by mailing a lengthy researcher-designed questionnaire to the sample of female managers. According to Gerike (1983), the findings of the study showed a reiterate pattern of gender-based discrimination. Specifically, it was found that female ma nagers were set out in power and consideration than the males, on the basis of lower salaries they were also less involvement than males with budgetary matters. In addition, managers more often trained and supervised employees of their own sex. womanly managers had longer average tenure with their organizations but less managerial experience. They were paying(a) significantly less than equally experienced males when job tenure for two was less than five years. Income for females but not for males was positively correlated with former policy-making experience. Female managers were less involved in informal interactions with colleagues, such(prenominal) as lunching and socializing, and more of them were single (11 women, 1 man). Somewhat lower levels of risk-taking behaviors... ... used in the study was from the Current Population Survey, March 1982. Analyses revealed that bringing up was significant in explaining the net profit differential for the sample of salespeople o nly. Marital consideration was significant for the sample of male salespeople only. Age and hours worked were also found to be significant in explaining the wage differentials for female salespeople, male sales managers or department heads, and male salespeople. Hours worked was the only variable significant in explaining salary differences between married and single female buyers. Birth-order and its effects on the gender-related factor of attitudes toward female mangers was examined in a study conducted by Brenner and Beutell (1989). Since birth-order is one of the variables that ordain be examined in this study, Brenner and Beutells study is pertinent to the proposed research.