Monday, December 17, 2018
'Allergies and other type of immune hypersensitivities\r'
'Allergies and other reference of immune hypersensitivities argon Coperni place undesir fitted side effect of our immune governance. These enigmas breathe in people who have a specialized sensitized tendency. Any star suffering from supersensitised re process provide number comfort that at that place be over 50 million fellow American sufferers of this problem. Roughly one in 6 American is afflicted with sensitised problem. Fortunately, in real few people wholeergic condition can become life threatening.In just ab fall out allergic reaction sufferers problems due to allergy app stiletto heel to be trivial such(prenominal) as runny nose, sneezing, fidgety eyes, sinus problem, rash and uncase complaints nevertheless these otherwise fry problems can make the allergy sufferers lives instead miserable. Our immune frame, essential for defending our bodies against foreign organisms, produces antibodies and actuate white cells to attack invaders like viruses and bact eria. Occasionally, the immune solvent results in an inappropriate or exaggerated response called hyper sensitiveness. Hypersensitivity is classified into four types; typesetters cases I, II, III and IV.Types I to Type III hypersensitivities atomic number 18 antibody-mediated while Type IV is a cell mediated hypersensitivity. Type II & group A; III argon Immunoglobulin G (IgG) mediated while Type I sensitivity is Immunoglobulin E mediated. The term Ã¢â¬Ëallergic reactionÃ¢â¬â¢ is jailed to immunoglobulin E mediated replys or Type I hypersensitivity [Levinson, 2004] . Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is our bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s phalanx defense system against certain parasites such as worms. In developed countries, where parasitic infection is un harsh, most people have no or very low level of IgE.An allergic reaction or allergy occurs when our bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s immune system mistakenly considers a harmless substance, called Ã¢â¬ËallergenÃ¢â¬â¢ as good and starts producing IgE to trigger a n allergic reaction [Levinson, 2004]. Types of Allergies supersensitised Rhinitis: This type of allergy sets pomposity of pinched mucosa with respiratory discomforts like sneezing and runny nose by inhaling allergens such as pollen, molds, dissipate, hackles and other allergens. Allergic Conjunctivitis: The allergic reaction affects the eyes, redness and itching ar the signs of this allergy. Bronchoconstriction:Wheezing and truncation of breath ca utilize by narrowing of bronchial cavities. bronchial asthma is a serious type of bronchoconstriction. This type of allergy is in like manner produced dust, pollen, mites, and other allergens. Ear Allergies: The allergens affect ear passages causing pain and impairing hearing. p ar down Allergies: Itchy rashes, blisters, hives, and seize dermatitis caused by touching certain substances such a poison ivy or food items are manifestation of this type of allergy. In allergies where swelling occurs as a result of hives, swelling can cause breathing and swallowing difficulties. Food Allergies:Certain kind of foods, such as fish egg, nuts and milk can cause in raiseinal upsets due to allergic reactions. cartridge holder Delayed Allergies: An allergic response appearing hours or sidereal days after(prenominal) application or immersion of an allergen; including contact dermatitis and bacterial allergy [Allergies, 2006] Anaphylaxis: This is the most exacting systemic allergic reaction causing bronchoconstriction, swelling of body tissues, vomiting, cr adenines, skin reactions and drop in decline pressure, coma and even death [Guyton & Hall, 2006]. allergy can also be classified on the basis of its effect and allergen as:? Respiratory Allergies ? jumble Allergies ? Food Allergies ? Asthma ? Drug Allergies ? Sting Allergies Causes & Risk Factors Problems with normal immune responses are believed to be the result of both genetic and environmental factors. Children of allergic parents are more likely to have standardised allergies though the allergens may differ. [Allergies, 2006] Genetic research is conduct scientists to believe that skin and tissue peculiar(prenominal) genes may be responsible for causing allergy symptoms [NIH, 2000]. variant and anxiety are acknowledged a universal cause of allergic reaction.[Lenzoff, 1997] subjected patients suspected of multiple chemic sensitivities concluded that in some sufferers allergy symptoms mogul be triggered by their perception of an environmental insult. extend use of chemicals has resulted in introduction of new toxins into the atmosphere. The increase in number of allergy cases during the last decades is a great deal attributed to atmospheric pollution [Bornehag et al, 2004]. Better identification of problem as allergy and non other minor condition such as cold is mayhap also responsible for increased numbers. Allergy or snappyA number of symptoms of ballpark cold are also the symptoms of allergy. It is not unusual t o mistake one for the other. The study difference surrounded by the cold and flu are [Allergy, 2006b]: Ã¢â¬ Both cold and allergy show the common symptoms of allergy but the cold is also accomp each by fever and pain. Ã¢â¬ Allergy begins adjacently after exposure to the allergen while cold takes a day or more to develop to full strength. Ã¢â¬ Cold is a self terminating diseases and the symptoms disappear in 3 to 7 days while allergies continue process the soul remains exposed to the allergen AllergensThe bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s immune system has the capability to attack a foreign organism. If it identifies a substance such as pollen as foreign, even mistakenly, the defense mechanism comes into action and IgE is produced to fight off that particular substance. Thus, there will be separate IgE for pollen and for dust allergies. There are m each allergens as whatsoever person could be allergic to a common substance, which is not an allergen to others, but the common allergens imply po llen and fungus from weeds, grasses. Trees and outdoor(prenominal) mold, dog and cat dander, dust particles, noxious vapours and smog, foods such as fish, eggs, nuts and insect bites.Signs & Symptoms In addition to the usual sneezing, runny nose, rashes allergy and red or itchy eyes symptoms embarrass atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, headache, earache, hives, coughing, sinusitis, and other discussed above. medical examination tastes & analyse Methods/Tools The diagnostic ladders for Allergy include: Ã¢â¬Â¢ Skin loot Test (SPT) Ã¢â¬Â¢ Total IgE Test Ã¢â¬Â¢ trudge of proper(postnominal) IgE Test Ã¢â¬Â¢ Phadiatop Assay Ã¢â¬Â¢ Specific IgE paediatric Food Mix fx5 Skin Prick Test: Skin prick test is a common and simple method of diagnosing allergy.In this test small amount of suspected allergens are injected either intra-dermally or into the scratching made in the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s skin. Patient allergic to any of the allergen shows a visible inflammation afte r half an hour. Skin Prick Test (SPT) only responds to allergens used in the test. In cases where patient is allergic to any other allergen, this test will not show. near patients with delayed type hypersensitivity may be adversely affected by the test. Total IgE Test: Patient serum IgE test is some other method used for determining Type I hypersensitivity.The test provides useful indication for allergy. This test as yet is not considered conclusive. The test measures total IgE determine and is said to be only to report earthly concern of allergy 60% of the time [Labspec, 2006]. The extent of symptoms and type of allergy has an effect on the result. Severe skin allergy shows a higher IgE place than rhinitis or conjunctivitis. [Labspec, 2006] also point out that Standard IgE values appear to exchange with ethnicity of the patient. Range of Specific IgE Test: many diagnostic suppliers are manufacturing item IgE test for allergens.Specific tests for over 400 allergens are ava ilable. Some of these specific tests have been approved for routine tests, other are awaiting approval. [Labspec, 2006] Phadiatop Assay: Instead of testing total IgE or specific test for a single(a) allergen, this test tests serum for a wide value of inhalant allergens. The test is said to be 95% reliable and can be used to miss allergens included in Phadiatop assay. Specific IgE Pediatric Food Mix fx5 His test is similar to Phadiatop Assay, but instead of inhalant allergens, ingestant allergens are tested.This test is calm down in approval stages for general laboratory use. discussion Options Many people with humble allergies void seek medical help, but it is important to know that allergies if leftfield untreated can develop into serious health problems like infections in sinuses, throat and ears, chronic respiratory problems, skin problems such as eczema. The treatment Options for allergies include: Ã¢â¬Â¢ Avoid allergen environment and/or food Ã¢â¬Â¢ over the counte r medication (histamines) Ã¢â¬Â¢ Prescription drugs & rhinal drops, Ã¢â¬Â¢ Allergy shots Ã¢â¬Â¢ Allergy Drops Ã¢â¬Â¢ Immunotherapy Ã¢â¬Â¢ Alternate TherapiesOnce a person knows the substance that causes allergy, the best treatment is to avoid that substance. thus far avoiding allergen is not always possible as it is not possible to breathe. Food allergens can be slow avoided [When Should I Get Medical Treatment for Allergy, 2006] . In a very large number of cases of mild allergy over the counter medication is all one needs to reduce the symptoms. It is important to denote a doctor for over the counter treat too, as some of these musics if used excessively can cause serious side effects. Most of the histamines cause drowsiness.Antihistamines and decongestants relieve the symptoms of most allergy sufferers. Again, a mendeleviumÃ¢â¬â¢s advice should be seek. Many new antihistamines relieve the symptoms of allergy without causing drowsiness. In sinus congestion, ade noidal sprays available on prescription provide rapid relief from symptoms of allergy. Allergy shots prevent the allergen from being accept as a foreign body. This treatment is graceful very popular. Sublingual drops also known as sublingual Immunotherapy (SLIT) is an alternate to allergy shots and has the same rule of desensitization.Oral application of SLIT is also considered convenient by the patients. Those interested in alternative medicine a great deal recommend several alternate therapies. Dietary supplements are said to increase health of immune system and prevent allergies. The other alternative medicines are beyond the scope of this paper. [Allergies, 2006a] provides several references to alternative treatment websites. Anaphylaxis must be considered a medical emergency and immediate medical help must be sought as it can cause low origination pressure, hyper-constriction, coma and even death.Prevention Methods The best prevention is to avoid the allergen responsible for causing the allergy. Cross the counter medicine approved by a patients physician may also be used before feeler into contact with allergens. In view of the number of sufferers, unlike equipments such as vacuum cleaners, humidifiers, beddings and air purifiers are available in the market to control domestic help allergens. A physician may be able to advice about prevention methods about other specific allergies. Bibliography 1.Allergies, (2006a), Alternative Allergy Treatment Options, [Online], retrieved from Internet on 10 January 2007, http://allergies. about. com/od/alternatives/Alternative_Allergy_Treatment_Options. htm 2. Allergies, (2006b), [Online], retrieved from Internet on 10 January 2007, http://www. med-help. net/Allergies. html 3. Allergy, (2006), What is Allergy, [Online], retrieved from Internet on 10 January 2007, http://www. setel. com/~allergy/Products/allergy 4. Bornehag C, Sundell J, Weschler C, Sigsgaard T, Lundgren B, Hasselgren M, Hagerhed-Engman L (200 4).Ã¢â¬Å"The association between asthma and allergic symptoms in children and phthalates in syndicate dust: a nested case-control study. Ã¢â¬Â Environ Health emplacement 112 (14): 1393-7. 5. Guyton, AC, and Hall, JE, (2006), Textbook of Medical Physiology-11th Edition, Published by Elsevier, Pa. , ISBN 13-81-8147-920-3 6. LabSpec, Allergy Diagnostic Tests, (2006) [Online], retrieved from Internet on 10 January 2007, http://www. labspec. co. za/diag. htm 7. Levinson, W. , (2004), Medical Microbiology & Immunology, 8th Edition, McGraw Hill Companies, ISBN 0-07-143199-3 8. Leznoff. A., (1999), Provocative challenges in patients with multiple chemical sensitivity, J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997 Apr; 99 (4):438-42 9. NIH- National set of Health/ National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), (2000), International Team Accelerates investigating of Immune-Related Genes, [Online], retrieved from Internet on 10 January 2007, http://www3. niaid. nih. gov/news/newsrelea ses/2000/ihwg. htm 10. When Should I Get Medical Treatment for Allergies? , (2006) [Online], retrieved from Internet on 10 January 2007, http://health. howstuffworks. com/allergy-treatments-ga1. htm\r\n'